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BLADE HEATING WHITEPAPER

Continuous operation under icing conditions - A guide to maximum AEP by means of preventive heating

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Blade Heating

By completing this whitepaper, you will

  • Know, which methods are considered for preventing ice accumulation on rotor blades
  • Learn when a blade heating system is needed
  • Find out the different technical approaches fpr blade heating
  • Learn why you need a suitable control strategy and why it’s essential to consider it

More about this offer

Welcome to the Blade heating Whitepaper. You’re about to start an exciting journey to transform your wind turbine performance.

Some of the most attractive wind resources in the world are located in cold climate
regions. These regions are on the one hand sparsely populated and have favourable
wind conditions, but on the other hand cold climate conditions with temperatures
down to -35°C subject wind turbines to tremendous challenges in operation and
maintenance.

What Will You Learn in This Whitepaper?

In this whitepaper you will find out why blade heating systems are needed, the different solutions for blade heating and how they differ and the importance of a suitable control strategy. One thing is certain: Precise ice detection and optimized blade heating means more yield for your wind turbine. We show you exactly how you can achieve this with your wind turbine in our whitepaper. Therefore, we summarise all the information needed, so that you can get a clear picture.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

The two technical solutions which have been established on the market by wind turbine
OEMs are: hot air heating inside the blade and electro-thermal heating elements laminated in the blade surface. Both approaches are part of the Whitepaper Blade heating.

Yes, it can be also informative for you, if you have losses due to icing, as we also show different retrofittable solutions.

Complete the form and after that check your inbox. You have to confirm your email address to receive our free whitepaper about blade heating.

Absolutely!
Just sharing some free knowledge that we hope you’ll find useful. Keep us in mind next time you have questions regarding rotor blade monitoring!

We will always keep your personal information safe.
We ask for your information in exchange for a valuable resource in order to improve your browsing experience by personalizing the eologix site to your needs, to send information to you that we think may be of interest to you by email or other means and to send you marketing communications that we think may be of value to you. You can read more about that in our privacy policy.

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© eologix sensor technology gmbh 2022

Free Download

ICE DETECTION WHITEPAPER

A Guide to increase the yield of your turbines using ice detection - including a comparison of common systems on the market

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Whitepaper_Icedetection

By completing this whitepaper, you will

  • Know the different available solutions for ice detection
  • Learn when an ice detection system is necessary
  • Find out how to increase the yield of your turbines
    using an ice detection system
  • Develop key factors for buying an ice detection system

More about this offer

Welcome to the Ice Detection Whitepaper. You’re about to start an exciting journey to transform your wind turbine performance.

Ice formation on wind turbines has a relevant influence on operational management in the cold season. In addition to reduced yield due to changed aerodynamic properties, the safety of the system and its surroundings is a key issue.

What Will You Learn in This Whitepaper?

In this whitepaper you will find out why precise ice detection is relevant, the different solutions for ice detection and how they differ and the benefits by using an ice detection system. One thing is certain: Precise ice detection and temperature measurement means more yield for your wind turbine. We show you exactly how you can achieve this with your wind turbine in our whitepaper. Therefore, we summarise the results of some relevant studies so that you can get a clear picture.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Two technical solutions have become established on the market: Nacelle-based ice detection systems and rotor-blade based ice detection systems. Therefore the whitepaper focuses mainly on these solutions.

Yes, absolutely. Even with few icing events a safety-relevant icing can occur.

Complete the form and after that check your inbox. You have to confirm your email address to receive our free whitepaper about ice detection.

Absolutely!
Just sharing some free knowledge that we hope you’ll find useful. Keep us in mind next time you have questions regarding rotor blade monitoring!

We will always keep your personal information safe.
We ask for your information in exchange for a valuable resource in order to improve your browsing experience by personalizing the eologix site to your needs, to send information to you that we think may be of interest to you by email or other means and to send you marketing communications that we think may be of value to you. You can read more about that in our privacy policy.

Get started with your ice detection whitepaper now

Fill in the form and get started



© eologix sensor technology gmbh 2022

Whitepaper

Ice detection to optimise your wind turbine

Learn how you can increase the yield of your wind turbine using a precise ice detection

Preview whitepaper

Ice formation on wind turbines has a relevant influence on operational management in the cold season. In addition to reduced yield due to changed aerodynamic properties, the safety of the system and its surroundings is a key issue.

 

In this whitepaper you will find out why precise ice detection is relevant, the different solutions for ice detection and how they differ and the benefits by using an ice detection system.

One thing is certain: Precise ice detection and temperature measurement means more yield for your wind turbine..

We show you exactly how you can achieve this with your wind turbine in our whitepaper. Therefore, we summarise the results of some relevant studies so that you can get a clear picture.

 

Don’t just take our word for it see for yourself:

Simply download the free whitepaper (21 pages)

 

We will address the following questions in our whitepaper ice detection:

Why is ice detection necessary?

… we show the problems caused by icing and explain the need for an ice detection system

Which solutions for ice detection are available?

… we present different technologies for ice detection

Why is an ice detection system worth it?

… find out how you can increase the yield of your wind turbine by using a modern ice detection
system and how to further benefit

Download the whitepaper

Complete the form and get our free whitepaper about ice detection.


TECHNOLOGY | 7 MIN TO READ

Comparison of 4 blade-based ice detection systems

Whitepaper: Optimise your wind turbine by using ice detection

Eiserkennungssysteme / Ice detection system

Cost efficiency, high yields and turbine safety are the most important factors in the operation of wind turbines. Ice detection systems provide support to ensure efficient operation of wind turbines even in the windiest winter months.

 

As part of a project (Meteotest (2021), Comparison of four detection systems of rotor icing installed on the same turbine, VGB Research Foundation, Project 401), a comprehensive field test was conducted from 2016-2020 in Stor-Rotliden, Sweden. The aim was to install all four established blade-based ice detection systems (IDS) from Polytech (former fos4x), Wölfel, Weidmüller and eologix on the same Vestas V-90 and comparing them over many icing events (none of the four IDS controls the WT during the field test).

 

Efficient operation of wind turbines under icing conditions requires accurate detection of icing, both in terms of timing and severity. The four different IDS detect rotor icing from the inside or outside of the rotor blades:

  • The IDS from Polytech (former fos4X), Wölfel and Weidmüller detect rotor icing based on changes in the frequency spectrum of the blade vibrations – these are also referred to vibration-based ice detection systems (VBS)
  • The eologix system detects rotor icing based on the electrical impedance directly on the rotor blade surface

Overview of the compared ice detection systems

eologix – www.eologix.com

eologix offers (retrofittable) sensor systems for early and exact ice detection based on the electrical impedance directly on the rotor blade surface. The sensors are wireless, flexible, smart and energy-self-sufficient and installed directly on the surface of rotor blades.

Polytech (ehemals fos4x) – www.polytech.com

The system measures and learns the natural frequencies of the rotor blades under various operating conditions. As soon as ice masses form on the blades, the vibration behavior of the rotor blades changes. Measuring accuracy of less than 9 mm or less than 10 kg per blade.

Weidmüller – www.weidmueller.de

BLADEcontrol® measures the degree of icing directly on the rotor blades and is based on a simple physical principle: The ice accumulation changes the natural vibration behavior of the rotor blade due to its additional weight, which reduces the vibration frequency.

Wölfel – www.woelfel.de

IDD.Blade measures the vibration behavior with sensors inside the rotor blades. If the mass of a rotor blade changes due to ice accumulation, the vibration behavior also changes.

Read more about the differences between rotor blade-based ice detection systems in our Whitepaper Ice Detection.

A detailed comparison of four blade-based IDS

After four winter seasons a data set of approximately 5700 operating hours (simultaneous operation of all four systems) of the wind turbines was collected, with approximately 2500 hours of icing (only rime ice). Several cameras have been used as a reference. This unique dataset allows a detailed comparison of the four blade-based IDS.

The analysis of the icing events showed that there is a consistensy between all four IDS and the camera images in terms of the timing of the icing events. The number of icing events for the three vibration-based IDS is very similar. However, differences in the total duration of turbine stops could be observed due to different sensitivity of the systems. Concerning the eologix system, there were significantly fewer and shorter downtimes.

The four blade-based ice detection systems compared using the example of an ice event from this study

The following figure shows an example of an ice event from this study. As can be seen in the figure, the eologix sensor system is the first to detect ice (turquoise – showing the eologix sensors), whereas the vibration-based ice detection systems (IDS1, IDS2 and IDS3) detect ice much later (visible in red).

The eologix system is the last system to shut down the plant, as it can distinguish between safety-relevant icing and non-safety-relevant icing  (shown in red in the eologix line above| compared to IDS1, IDS2 and IDS3).

How to ensure safety during icing conditions

Example of an ice event (VGB research project 401; Abstract presented at Winterwind 2021) – (Source: Comparison of four blade-based ice detection systems installed on the same turbine, Paul Froidevaux, Meteotest AG, Winterwind 2021, April 20, 2021)

eologix compared to other ice detection systems

“[…] most sensitive ice detection status from all four systems.”

(Quote about the eologix system (Meteotest (2021), Comparison of four detection systems of rotor icing installed on the same turbine, VGB Research Foundation, project 401)

Regarding the eologix ice detection system the following points were summarized as results:

  • eologix is ​​the first system to detect icing on the rotor blade,
  • the eologix system requires the shortest downtimes (if the wind turbine stops according to the system certifications),
  • the eologix system stopped the wind turbine 2.5 times shorter than the three VBS,
  • eologix was the only system with 100% availability of ice detection during production hours.

 

It was further noted, unlike the eologix system, the three vibration-based systems could not detect icing at low wind speeds or in the case of standstill.

Whitepaper_Ice_Detection

Related articles

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Ensure safety at all times and comply with local regulations

Measure where icing starts: Smart sensor system for ice detection directly on the rotor blade surface – safe and highly available

Our sensors are installed all along the blade surface up to the tip (incl. leading edge), directly detecting icing and measuring the surface temperature.

  • Safety ensured even during turbine stop and idling
  • Only system with 100% availability*
  • No 3rd party data needed in order to let the system work
  • Ensures continous safety for service technicians and any trepasser

*according to Meteotest (2021), Comparison of four detection systems of rotor icing installed on the same turbine, VGB Research Foundation, project 401

RotorBladeSmartSensor

Why eologix

Reliable detection anywhere on the blade

Safety ensured even during turbine stop or idling

No third party data (SCADA data) needed in order to work

Fully automated operation

What you can do with eologix sensor systems

Measuring directly on the blade surface

eologix sensor systems prevent the risk of ice throw by detecting ice directly on the rotor blade surface – the product signals a safety relevant stop at icing. Depending on the used system, we also offer an automatic restart system eologix:restart, which restarts the turbine after an “ice-free” signal. With eologix:heat we do also offer measures for the realisation of preventive heating solutions (i.e. rotor blade heating during operation to avoid icing of the blades at all).

Independent from 3rd party data

eologix ice detection only requires to interface the turbine controller with standard signals to work. No information from the controller are necessary for a reliable ice detection service

Works in any turbine operation mode

eologix reliably detects ice in any site condition and at any turbine operation mode, even below 3m/s while idling or when the turbines are stopped (e.g. locked rotor state). This enables full safety during any operation in icing conditions. This enables safety against ice throw (e.g. by stopping the turbine) and also ice fall (as all our systems detect icing also when the turbine is idling or stopped, e.g. by switching on warning lights).

How eologix systems ensure against ice fall and ice throw

eologix offers (retrofittable) sensor systems for early and exact detection of ice accumulation and pitch misalignment based on wireless, flexible, smart and energy-self-sufficient sensors installed directly on the surface of rotor blades

“[…] the eologix system was most often
the first IDS to detect the presence of light icing […]” *

How to ensure safety during icing conditions

Example of an ice event (VGB research project 401; Excerpt presented at Winterwind 2021) – Public report to be published soon (Source: Comparison of four blade-based ice detection systems installed on the same turbine, Paul Froidevaux, Meteotest AG, Winterwind 2021, April 20, 2021)

 

*according to Meteotest (2021), Comparison of four detection systems of rotor icing installed on the same turbine, VGB Research Foundation, project 401

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What others say about us

Meteotest (2021), Comparison of four detection systems of rotor icing installed on the same turbine, VGB Research Foundation, project 401

“[…] eologix would have stopped the turbine approximately 2.5 times less than the VBS.” (Vibration-Based Systems)

You'll be in good company

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It's easy to get started

So here’s what you can do now to get started:

 

Book a demo with Karl

And learn more about safe wind turbine operation during icing conditions

Not ready for a demo yet? Check out our Whitepaper Ice detection for more information.

 

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TECHNOLOGY | 5 MIN TO READ

Hoarfrost, rime ice and glaze ice in wind turbine operation

You can find out how icing occurs, which phases of icing there are and what it actually depends on in our white paper: Optimize your turbine with the help of ice detection

Klareisbildung am eologix sensor - Klima-Windkanal

Hoarfrost

Hoarfrost is a form of fog-frost deposition, usually thin, fragile ice needles or scales that adhere only loosely to objects and are formed almost exclusively by sublimation. The prerequisites for the formation of frost are high humidity (around 90 % or more), weak wind and temperature values generally below minus 8 °C.

 

Rime ice

RIme ice is a solid precipitation that forms mainly at high wind speeds and an air temperature of typically -2 to -10 degrees Celcius. This ice forms from supercooled fog water droplets and forms on surfaces, typically against the wind direction. The formed ice layer of grey-white granular particles have a sponge-like appearance and are quite loose compared to solid glaze ice.

Rime ice is characterised by the fact that it has no crystalline structures and includes a large number of air bubbles in its structure. The partial melting and refreezing of the particles causes them to stick together to varying degrees, depending on the prevailing temperature conditions.

 

Glaze ice

Smooth, compact, transparent and very firmly adhering ice deposit of indeterminate shape and irregular surface. Glaze ice is formed at air temperatures between 0 and minus 3 °C by slow freezing of supercooled mist droplets on objects. Glaze ice can grow into extremely heavy ice loads.

Hoarfrost

high humidity (>90%)

below -8°C

light wind

Rime ice

typ. -2 to -10°C

especially at high wind speeds

Glaze ice

between 0 and -3°C

clear, transparent, solid

Fog Frost Deposits

Collective term for the deposited precipitation hoar frost, rime and glaze ice. (Deutscher Wetterdienst)

Raureif

Before 1986, “Raureif” was the collective term used at the “Deutscher Wetterdienst” for glaze ice, rime ice and frost.

Types of icing on rotor blades and their dangers

In principle, all three types of icing, namely hoarfrost, rime ice and glaze ice can occur on rotor blades.

DSC00808

Rime ice

In low-lying countries, ice layers are usually very thin and light and therefore do not represent any danger. At high altitudes, however, wind turbines are operated within the cloud cover, so that layers of rime ice can very often become very dense and hard and can be 10 cm or more thick at the leading edge of the rotor blades. Such deposits of rime ice pose a danger during operation of the wind turbine.

Electric City 2021

Hoarfrost on rotor blades

Only poses a safety hazard from a very high density (several cm). Due to its low density and large surface area, it detaches from the rotor blades like snowfall.

DSC00121

Glaze ice

Due to the very high density and the possible layer thickness of several centimetres, ice accumulations in the form of glaze ice pose a danger during operation of the wind turbine.

Dropped ice fragments from iced rotor blades have already been found at a distance of more than 100m from wind turbines. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken against ice throw and ice fall.

Ice accumulation on rotor blades represents a potential risk for the operation of a wind turbine

  • Falling fragments of ice from the rotor blades can pose a safety risk
  • Danger from icing depends, among other things, on the type of icing and the thickness of the ice
  • Iced rotor blades can significantly minimise the performance of the wind turbine and cause increased vibrations

 

eologix systems regarding types of icing

  • eologix systems measure ice and surface temperature at each sensor directly on the rotor blade surface
  • Differentiation between types of icing possible – enables shut-down only in case of safety-relevant icing (in independent tests, on average 2.5 times fewer downtimes compared to other rotor blade-based ice detection systems)

eologix sensors in use in the Climate Wind Tunnel at the FH Joanneum

The best way to make good decisions is to base them on solid knowledge. That’s why our products undergo a wide range of tests before we introduce them to the market.

 

  • eologix ice detection enables the classification of the surface condition in five different levels, that means that we also measure the ice thickness on your rotor blades. The following figure shows an example of this for glaze ice.

 

  • Compared to other blade-based systems, eologix ranks, among others, as the safest system (highest availability in independent tests), with the lowest downtimes and at the same time the highest sensitivity of these four tested blade-based systems available on the market – read more here

 

Ice detection Whitepaper
References
  1. Deutscher Wetterdienst (Hrsg.), Nebelfrostablagerungen, abgerufen unter: https://www.dwd.de/DE/service/lexikon/Functions/glossar.html?lv2=101812&lv3=101872
  2. Wikipedia (Hrsg.): Raueis, abgerufen unter: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raueis
  3. Hohenlohekreis.de (Hrsg.): Angaben zum Schutz vor Eisabwurf Vereisungsgefahren und Enteisungssysteme, 2017
  4. Deutscher Wetterdienst (Hrsg.), Raureif, Raueis, Raufrost – Was denn nun?!, abgerufen unter: https://www.dwd.de/DE/wetter/thema_des_tages/2014/12/6.html

Related articles

TECHNOLOGY | 5 MIN TO READ

Safe through the winter: Ice throw and ice fall on wind turbines

Whitepaper: Optimise your wind turbine by using ice detection

Ensure_Safety

How to ensure safety during icing conditions (especially with regard to ice fall and ice throw) – Ice accumulation on wind turbine rotor blades has a crucial impact on operation and maintenance. Lower return due to aerodynamic imbalances as well as safety of the power plant and its surroundings are of central importance.
Regardless of whether a wind turbine is located next to a highway or in the mountains where skiers and hikers pass by – It should be always ensured that service technicians and any trespasser are safe in any turbine operation mode.

The reliable, safe and beneficial operation of wind turbines requires the use of a number of safety features. In order to ensure safety for all service personal and any trespasser, it is common to integrate a reliable ice detection system into the wind turbine. This makes it possible to stop the wind turbine in the event of any safety-relevant ice accumulation and to restart the wind turbine automatically after detection of the “ice-free” state.

Evaluating risk caused by ice throw from wind turbines

There has been a lot of discussions around the topic of ice accumulation on wind turbines, mainly those near to civilisation. Under the right atmospheric conditions, ice can build-up over a period of time on the wind turbine. While the accumulation of ice is highly dependent on weather conditions, this accumulation can lead to potential risk, namely ice fall and ice throw.

Mitigating the risk of ice throw

When planning wind farm operations, potential impacts are currently mitigated through:

  • Evaluation of the wind turbine’s location and establishing exclusion zones based on the turbine height and rotor blade diameter
  • Monitoring with ice detection systems to stopp the turbine, if safety relevant ice accumulation occurs on the rotor blade surface
    (Some wind turbines also have an integrated rotor blade heating system. With such a rotor blade heater, it is possible to heat the blade in the event of ice build-up, thus ensuring continuous safe operation of the wind turbine even under icing conditions).
  • Different warning for trespassers and service personal (such as warning lights, signs, etc.)

 

The applicable regulations and guidelines vary greatly depending on the location and turbine type (depending on hub height and rotor blade diameter). There are locations where an additional system for ice detection (e.g. in addition to a power curve-based ice detection system) is already prescribed before the start of construction.

Safe ice detection system

There are different ice detection systems. Regarding our ice detection systems, for example, ice is directly measured on the surface. In this case, the ice built up can be measured from the beginning (already below 1 mm) and can also be measured in every operation mode, no matter if the wind turbine is rotating or not.

A study of the VGB (VGB research project 401; Excerpt presented at Winterwind 2021) confirmed, that our ice detection system is the first system which detects ice compared to three other vibration-based systems. These enables highest safety even during turbine stop and idling. In the following figure it can be seen that our system is the first system to detect ice, as it is measuring directly on the rotor blade surface.

More differences of these ice detection systems are explained in our Whitepaper – Ice detection to optimise your wind turbine and the article Types of ice detection systems.

How to ensure safety during icing conditions

Example of an ice event (VGB research project 401; Excerpt presented at Winterwind 2021) – Public report to be published soon (Source: Comparison of four blade-based ice detection systems installed on the same turbine, Paul Froidevaux, Meteotest AG, Winterwind 2021, April 20, 2021)

 

Ensuring against ice throw and ice fall

Ice fall and ice throw from wind turbines (WT) is an important aspect at nearly all sites with icing conditions. Icing conditions bring a variety of risks, including power loss, ice fall and shedding, and rotor imbalance. The risk of ice fall and ice throw should also be assessed at sites with only a few icing events per year, especially if the presence of people cannot be ruled out at the site of the wind turbine even with a high probability (e.g. due to hiking trails, ski regions, service personnel, etc.).

How eologix systems ensure against ice fall and ice throw

eologix sensor systems prevent the risk of ice throw by detecting ice directly on the rotor blade surface – the product signals a safety relevant stop at icing. Depending on the used system, we also offer an automatic restart system eologix:restart, which restarts the turbine after an “ice-free” signal. With eologix:heat we do also offer measures for the realisation of preventive heating solutions (i.e. rotor blade heating during operation to avoid icing of the blades at all).

eologix reliably detects ice in any site condition and at any turbine operation mode, even below 3m/s while idling or when the turbines are stopped (e.g. locked rotor state). This enables full safety during any operation in icing conditions. This enables safety against ice throw (e.g. by stopping the turbine) and also ice fall (as all our systems detect icing also when the turbine is idling or stopped, e.g. by switching on warning lights).

Whitepaper_Ice_Detection

Related articles

Modified safety regulations of wind farm operations in France

(in force since January 1, 2021)

France    Click here to the French version of this article

On June 22, 2020 a new decree was published by the French Government, to bring some modifications in the safety regulations of wind farm operations (ICPE regulation).

Before the modifications of the safety regulations are explained in detail, we make a quick overview of this regulation.

 

About the regulations

The French Government regulates safety regulations of wind farm operations, which are binding for all France wind farms in an order of the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing, the so called: Order of 26 August 2011 relating to electricity production installations using mechanical wind energy in an installation subject to authorization under section 2980 of the legislation on installations classified for the protection of the environment.

In this order there are different regulations for wind farms, such as fire-fighting guidelines, alert regulations for operators etc. It is generally divided into different sections:

  • General
  • Implantation
  • Constructive provisions
  • Operation
  • Risks (Articles 22-25)
  • Noise

 

The following discussed modified safety regulations are part pf the Section 5 “Risks” and are handled in the Article 25.

This new decree is entered into force with January 1, 2021.

 

What has changed with this new decree for wind farm operations?

Modified safety regulations in Article 25

In the article 25 of this decree the rules for ice detection of wind turbines have been slightly modified. In the following figure the changes of this regulation are shown in detail (only applicable in French).

France: Valid regulations and orders

All for France valid regulations can be found here.

Up to 80% less downtime

Accurate ice detection using the eologix systems reduces the downtime of your wind turbine by up to 80% per year. Insights in the results of an independent research project “Ice Control” (Case Study) of our customer can be found here.

Ice detection system to ensure safety of your wind turbine. We will help you to do so:

Changes Article 25

Source: Arrêté du 26 août 2011 relatif aux installations de production d’électricité utilisant l’énergie mécanique du vent au sein d’une installation soumise à autorisation au titre de la rubrique 2980 de la législation des installations classées pour la protection de l’environnement (1)

Ice detection system to ensure safety

Now any wind turbine that has a risk of ice accumulation has to include an ice detection system that prevents the turbine to be operated in case ice can be thrown (before this requirement was only limited to wind farms located in areas where the average winter temperatures were below 0°C) – here you can find 6 factors when buying an ice detection system.

If the operator does not want to deploy an ice detection system, the absence of risk has to be demonstrated.

 

Need of a defined restart procedure for wind turbine operators

Now the operator has to define a restart procedure that guarantee that no ice will be thrown once the turbine restarts (that was not openly mentioned before), as for example possible with the eologix:restart system.

Therefore, all operators concerned by ice on their wind turbines should invest in systems that can guarantee the absence of ice before restart.

 

Safe operation with eologix ice detection systems

eologix ice detection systems enable safe and automatic operation during icing conditions. Our systems measure ice and its thickness directly on the rotor blade surface. It can be measured in every operation mode (also while idling or standstill), no matter if the wind turbine rotates or not – always fully covered.

Benefits of the eologix ice detection systems:

  • Can detect icing in all operation modes

    no matter if the turbines rotating or not

  • Qualified and certified by independent bodies

  • Precise ice detection

    (including measuring the ice thickness and surface temperature)

Learn how to minimise the risks of ice formation and optimise your wind turbine using ice detection in our 21-page white paper

Preview whitepaper

Modification de l’arrêté ICPE concernant l’exploitation des parcs éoliens en France

(applicable depuis le 1er Janvier 2021)

Back to the English version of this article

En date du 22 Juin 2020, le gouvernement français a publié un nouvel arrêté mettant à jour les préconisations de la réglementation ICPE relative à l’exploitation des parcs éoliens.

Avant d’expliquer l’impact de ces modifications sur la gestion du risque givre sur les parcs éoliens, rappelons d’abord l’objet et le champ d’application de cette réglementation ICPE.

 

A propos de la réglementation ICPE

L’arrêté du 26 Août 2011 est un texte de loi édité par le Ministère français de l’Ecologie, du Développement Durable, des Transports et du Logement, et qui régit les conditions d’exploitation applicables aux parcs éoliens installés sur le territoire français, sous le statut d’Installations Classées pour la Protection de l’Environnement (ICPE).

Cet arrêté inclut différentes préconisations, telles que la marche à suivre en cas d’incendie, les procédures d’alerte à mettre en œuvre, etc. Le document est divisé en différentes sections:

  • Généralités
  • Implantation
  • Dispositions constructives
  • Exploitation
  • Risques
  • Bruit
  • Démantèlement
  • Garanties financières

 

Dans la suite de cet article, nous nous concentrerons uniquement sur les modifications apportées à l’article 25 de la section 5 relatives aux Risques. Suite à la publication de l’arrêté modificatif le 22 Juin 2020, ce nouvel arrêté est désormais en vigueur depuis le 1er Janvier 2021.

 

 

Quelles modifications concernant le risque givre sur les parcs en exploitation ?

Modifications édictées dans l’Article 25

Dans l’article 25 de cet arrêté modificatif, les règles concernant la détection de givre sur les éoliennes ont été légèrement modifiées. L’illustration suivante montre le détail de ces modifications.

France : Règlements et arrêtés en vigueur

Toutes les réglementations en vigueur en France peuvent être consultées ici.

Up to 80% less downtime

Accurate ice detection using the eologix systems reduces the downtime of your wind turbine by up to 80% per year. Insights in the results of an independent research project “Ice Control” (Case Study) of our customer can be found here.

Ice detection system to ensure safety of your wind turbine. We will help you to do so:

Changes Article 25

Source: Arrêté du 26 août 2011 relatif aux installations de production d’électricité utilisant l’énergie mécanique du vent au sein d’une installation soumise à autorisation au titre de la rubrique 2980 de la législation des installations classées pour la protection de l’environnement (1)

Ensure_Safety

How to ensure safety during icing conditions

Ice accumulation on wind turbine rotor blades has a crucial impact on operation and maintenance. Lower return due to aerodynamic imbalances as well as safety of the power plant and its surroundings are of central importance.

Un système de détection de givre fiable, pour garantir la sûreté d’exploitation

Chaque éolienne présentant un risque d’accumulation de givre à sa surface doit désormais inclure un système de détection interdisant son redémarrage s’il y a un risque de projection de glace (auparavant cette exigence se limitait aux parcs situés dans les zones où les températures hivernales moyennes étaient inférieures à 0°C) – vous trouverez ici 6 critères à prendre en compte quand vous investissez dans un système de détection de givre.

Si l’exploitant ne souhaite pas déployer un système de détection de givre, il doit être en mesure de faire la démonstration concrète de l’absence de risques sur ses éoliennes.

 

Obligation pour les exploitants de définir une procédure de redémarrage après un épisode de givre

L’exploitant doit désormais définir une procédure qui garantit qu’aucune projection de glace n’aura lieu au redémarrage de ses éoliennes, suite à tout épisode de givre (cette garantie contre les projections de glace n’étaient pas mentionnées explicitement dans la précédente version du texte), ce qui est par exemple possible avec eologix:restart system.

Tous les exploitants concernés par la problématique givre sur leurs parcs vont donc devoir investir dans des systèmes leurs garantissant l’absence totale de givre avant redémarrage des éoliennes.

 

 

Exploitation en toute sécurité avec les systèmes de détection de givre eologix

Les systèmes de detection de givre d’eologix permettent une exploitation automatisée et en toute sécurité en période de givre. Nos systèmes mesurent la présence et l’épaisseur de glace directement à la surface de la pale. Cette mesure peut se faire quel que soit le mode opérationnel des machines (même en rotation lente ou à l’arrêt), que l’éolienne soit en fonctionnement ou non.

Avantges du système de détection de givre eologix:

  • Détecte la présence de givre quel que soit le mode opérationnel

    Peu importe si les éoliennes sont en fonctionnement ou arrêtées

  • Système revu et certifié par des Organismes de contrôle indépendant

  • Détection de givre ultra précise

    (incluant la mesure de l’épaisseur de givre et de la température de surface au niveau de la pale)

Learn how to minimise the risks of ice formation and optimise your wind turbine using ice detection in our 21-page white paper

Preview whitepaper

TECHNOLOGY | 5 MIN TO READ

Dangers and risks due to ice accumulation on wind turbines

Whitepaper: Optimise your wind turbine by using ice detection

Eiserkennung_Eis_Hintergrund

Minimise risks such as ice throw and increase yield with ice detection and temperature measurement directly on the rotor blade surface

The risk factor: icing

A wind turbine is designed to be used for at least 20 years, sometimes even up to 30 years. During its lifetime, it should reliably deliver maximum energy yield with the highest possible technical availability and at the same time independent of environmental influences.

A multitude of natural forces act on a wind turbine, including storms, heavy rainfall, hail, lightning, icing, etc. We want to take a closer look at the risk factors of icing.

Temperatures around freezing point in combination with high humidity, fog or rain: these weather conditions can lead to ice formation on the rotor blades of wind turbines. This can have far-reaching consequences in the ongoing operation of the turbine, but also lead to further consequential damage to the wind turbine. Possible consequences of ice formation on wind turbines are outlined below:

  • Ice accumulation leads to poorer aerodynamics and therefore to a loss of power
  • Ice throw and ice fall from wind turbines can endanger nearby people and surrounding infrastructure
  • Ice formation usually leads to an automatic shutdown of the wind turbine – unless the shutdown is prevented, e.g. by activating a blade heater – this necessary signal can be emitted with eologix:heat
  • Additional loads and imbalances caused by ice can accelerate material fatigue
  • Loss of performance due to downtimes
  • Regulations or conditions require precautionary actions – e.g. plant shutdown to ensure continued safety (varies depending on different factors, such as location).

Where does icing occur?

Icing of surfaces is a ubiquitous problem in nature in certain areas of the world, causing high costs and affecting function and safety. The areas where new wind turbines are built are also increasingly expanding into colder regions, so-called cold climates, making the icing factor an increasing problem.

Cold Climate Karte Europa

Figure: Published in 2000, Wind energy production in cold climate (WECO)

Cold Climate (CC)

Cold climate (CC) areas are regions in which atmospheric icing or periods with temperatures below the operating limits of standard wind turbines (typically -10 ° C for operation) occur.

You can find out how icing occurs, which phases of icing there are and what specifically matters in our white paper Ice detection to optimise your wind turbine.

The 3 biggest dangers and risks with icing of wind turbines

As already shown, ice accumulation on rotor blades and/or the nacelle can lead to various consequences. These supposedly greatest dangers can be summarised as follows:

 

Loss of performance

leistungsverlust

Ice throw and ice fall

eisabwurf

Imbalances

Rotorunwucht

What is meant by the term ice throw or ice fall?
What is the difference?

The term ice throw in wind turbines refers to the detachment of pieces of ice during the operation of a wind turbine. In contrast, the term “ice fall” or “ice drop” is understood to mean the detachment of pieces of ice from a stopped wind turbine.

Do you want to know more about the 3 risks?

In the next blog posts, we will again look in detail at the individual three risks associated with ice accumulation, namely power loss, ice throw and ice fall and imbalances.

 

Minimise the economic and technical consequences with direct ice detection and temperature measurement on the rotor blade

eologix systems, which enable ice detection and temperature measurement directly on the blade surface of wind turbines, ensure smooth operation in icing conditions up to fully automatic operation in icing conditions.

eologix sensor technology gmbhH offers ice detection systems with direct measurement on the rotor blades based on capacitive sensor technology and stands for ice detection and temperature measurement directly on the rotor blade surface. When selecting a system for ice detection, various factors have to be considered, such as calibration and flexibility of the solution. Here is an overview of 6 relevant factors to consider when purchasing an ice detection system.

Therefore, eologix offers systems consisting of one receiver unit per plant and flexible, energy-autonomous and precise sensors, which are mounted directly on the rotor blade surface. Learn more about the eologix systems here.

Up to 80% less downtime

Accurate ice detection using the eologix systems reduces the downtime of your wind turbine by up to 80% per year. You can find more advantages of the technology here.

Ice detection Whitepaper

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Webinar “Wind Asset Optimisation” January 26, 2021

Get more out of the wind

Ice formation on wind turbines has a relevant influence on operational management in cold climates. In addition to reduced yield due to changed aerodynamic properties, safety of the system and its surroundings due to ice fall is a key issue.

All questions have been answered during the webinar. If you have any more questions or want to know how your turbines can benefit with the eologix sensor system just book a meeting with us.

Thomas Schlegl

Thomas Schlegl
managing director & founder

Are you getting the most out of your wind assets?

Do you want to know what is happening directly on your rotor blades? Do you want a fully automatic operation during icing conditions?

 

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